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Historically, Shirvan was a territory in the eastern part of the Caucasus, a well-known with this name from the Islamic era to the present day. Today it is a developed region of Azerbaijan, stretching from the western littoral of the Caspian Sea and to the center of Shirvan plain, including the districts of Agsu, Ismayilli, Gobustan and Shamakhi. With a total area of 6060 square km., it occupies 7% of the total country’s superficies.
The lie of the ground is represented by hills and lowland areas, respectively, the climatic conditions vary depending on it, and vary from wet and to moderate cold.
The population of approximately 257,000 people, accounting 3% of the populace of the state. To this day, the term Shirvani is used in Azerbaijan to refer to the people of Shirvan region, as it has developed historically. Since old times, the main inhabitants of Shirvan were groups speaking of Caucasian languages, but later when Iranian and then Turkish rule most of the population became Turkic Azeri, but survived also the Iranian-speaking minorities.
The indigenous population here was a Paleo-Caucasians speaking Caucasian languages. And to this day there are remained such languages as Dagestan, Udi, Lezgin and Avar.
The region has untold wealth of oil and natural gas. But in excess of that, the hilly areas are rich in mineral waters, on the basis of which founded the medical and spa centers. Spring waters are rich in sulfur and hydrocarbon compositions, which are used for medicinal purposes.
In Shirvan historically been developed handicrafts and weaving. So, for example, the village Lahij is famed for its copper production, and in the village Baskaev produce the beautiful scarved patterns. Widespread the workshops of silk scarves in Shemakha. Carpet weaving is also among the traditional crafts of the region.
Shirvan district has a broad network of transport, in which Baku-Tbilisi railway gives the opportunity of economic relations with the CIS and Baku-Gazakh highway interconnect the capital with the western provinces.
Disposed on the foothills of the Great Caucasus, Shirvan was the site of the rule of the ancient state of Azerbaijan – Shirvanshahs, with the capital in Shamakhi, until the end of the sixteenth century.
Shirvan is often called the flower garden, thanks to the abundance of tulip gardens and many flowering meadows.
As already noted, the abundance of mineral water is a great precondition for the existence of the developed resort areas and centers. These waters contain useful type of carbonate, and water of Ismayilli region, also used for health purposes belongs to the hydro carbonate type.