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Located 316 kilometers from Yerevan, on the southeastern descent of the mountain range of Zangezur, Kapan is the center of Syunik province.
The first written mention of it belong to the fifth centenary and it was a fortress city in the countryside of Syunik. Meaning of the word Kapan is a canyon or pass. This name was given to the area because of the many surrounding valleys and mountains.
The area is famous for its rich natural resources, particularly deposits of copper and molybdenum.
Today the populace of Kapan is approximately 43 thousand people and is the most inhabited city of Syunik.
By the 10th century, Prince Smbat II settled in Kapan and created here the kingdom of Artsakh, while promulgating himself a governor within the kingdom of Bagratuni.
In different historical landmarks the place subjected to invasions, and in 1103 was almost completely destroyed by the Seljuk invaders. In 1170, along with other Armenian territories in Kapan ruled the Persian dynasty.
Significant development, expansion and formation as a city Kapan received in the 18th century.
Then, as a result of the unification of several villages, it was formed as a complete urban unit, with the assignment of the official status of the city in 1938 already under the Soviet government.
Modern Kapan is placed about 10 km from the medieval settlement.
The uttermost peak in the region is a mountain Khustup reaches 3201 meters and the average height of the populated area is 910 meters. The town is crossed by inflows of the river
Voghji, Vachagan and Kavart.
At 14 kilometers from Kapan is Shikahogh State Reserve, created in 1958. The reserve is the natural habitat of 1,000 species marked in the Red Book of Armenia. To this day, fauna of Shikahogh is still in the process of learning, but by research have been identified such rare species as the leopard, wild goat and other.
Baghaberd Fortress is disposed along the ridge, looking at the river Voghji, originally belongs to the 4th century and in 14 km distance from Kapan. Presumably Baghaberd was built by Baghak Sisak Nahapet.
After the disruption of the neighboring village of Kapan in 1103 Baghaberd became the capital of the kingdom Syunik, but in 1170 the fortress was seized by the Turks, robbed and brutally been burned more than 10,000 manuscripts.
Once it was a huge fortress where in the underground maze were the rooms and channels. The structure was built of red rocks that by its location reminiscent of coral reefs and harmoniously blend with the rocks on which the castle stood.